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Résultats de recherche

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    KANKINDI SANDRINE IS RWAMREC'S BEST EMPLOYEE OF THE YEAR 2022. As the year came to an end, we conducted a three-day reflection and team-building staff retreat in Rubavu District to revisit the year’s activities, achievements and the way forward. Kankindi Sandrine was named the best employee of the year at the end of the retreat. Mrs. Sandrine got the greatest number of votes from the staff, since she outperformed expectations in her department. Sandrine is a skilled and passionate employee who takes charge of observing time. Her drive for improvement has been constant throughout her career.


    This qualitative study explored gender relations and the role of masculinities on women’s participation in local civilian and political agendas in the eight Rwandan districts including Burera, Gakenke, Gatsibo, Ngororero, Nyagatare, Nyamagabe, Nyaruguru and Rulindo. The study, carried out in December 2020 and January 2021, included interviews and discussions with 384 men, women, boys and girls in 64 Focus Group Discussions and 25 Key informant interviews with stakeholders, experts and leaders at national, district and community levels. The research aimed to identify obstacles in gender relations and masculinities that contribute to GBV and hinder women’s participation of the local agenda and grasp aspects of masculinity that positively contribute to women’s engagement and participation in local politics. The obstacles are associated with attitudes, practices and perceptions on masculinities in gender relations : Cultural perceptions and norms are keeping women and men captured in traditional gender roles : Gender relations are characterized by traditional gender roles where men are the head of the family and women do household work. Women and girls’ ambitions remain often focused to “be a good wife and mother”. In being a “good woman” they have to respect men and husbands as their providers and protectors which automatically gives men the privileged position as decision makers. “Good man” are responsible for the family and in being a real man they cannot do women’s work. Cultural taboos and shame are playing an important role in keeping men and women stuck to socially ascribed activities. Social norms are internalized and deeply ingrained in gendered identities. Breaking such social codes generates strong emotions as shame, especially among men ; that makes changes of gender norms difficult. Power inequality facilitates men’s use of violence against women and reinforce traditional social norms of women as weak and men as decision makers : Men feeling entitled to dominate and control women because they are income providers and males, are not providing space for women to take decisions nor consider their opinions. Furthermore, power inequality leads to various forms of violence against women committed by men, and women are often blamed for men’s use of violence. Framing women as peacemakers that are responsible for harmony at home contribute to men’s justification of violence use to a wife that is not respecting him. In other words, power inequality reinforces violence and abuse against women and feeds the perception that masculinity means that men can restrict, abuse and dominate their wives. Psychosocial responses of women and girls affected by gender-based violence reinforce traditional gender roles : Many women and girls are coping with negative consequences of violence by keeping silent and acceptance of traditional gender roles. The psychosocial consequences of violence confine women, but also girls, to their socially prescribed roles and force them to accept men’s power and control to avoid conflicts and social rejection. Fear and consequences of violence, the shame of being labeled as a bad woman who is not respecting her husband, is a major obstacle for women to participate in public activities. To avoid violence and social rejection, women navigate their life’s between traditional gender roles expectations and searching opportunities to enjoy her women rights. Gender equality is perceived as a failure of masculinity : Men and boys resist to support gender equality as they fear that women’s autonomy may take power away from men. Men are afraid that women’s empowerment makes women disrespectful, arrogant, prostitutes and make them a source of conflicts at home. Social taboos on men’s vulnerability and weakness are pushing men and boys to meet masculinity perceptions of being strong, tough and in control. Failure in having control, is an important source of resistance against gender equality and violence against women. Rwandan regulations to promote gender equality and end GBV are hindered by masculinity perceptions : The anti GBV law has an important preventive impact on gender-based violence against women. Fear for punishment has created a taboo on violence against women as a crime that is no longer accepted as a social cultural phenomenon. Loss of power is confronting men with failed masculinity that generates resistance and sometimes more violence. Access for women to decision making structures is opening new windows for women and girls but full implementation is hindered by hegemonic masculinities. Access for women and girls to political engagement evolves but is hindered by deeply rooted perceptions on gender relations and masculinities : Women and men are aware of possibilities for women to participate in meetings and leadership roles, but traditional gender roles are the main obstacles for women as for men. Women cannot combine the household work with other activities and men are not yet ready to support his wife doing women’s work. Women, often lower educated than men, feeling less experienced and skilled to take up leader roles. Last but not least, strong resistance of men fearing to lose control is hindering women to participate. Young boys and girls supportive to women’s role in leadership positions : The younger generation is more convinced that women and men have equal capacities and competences for decision making and political participation. They have experienced themselves that there was no difference in skills and intelligence of boys and girls. Despite their support for women’s and girls’ access to leadership, and access for women and girls to work outside the house, they hold on to traditional gender roles. The majority of boys and girls think that women should do homework and childcare and men should generate income. But they could collaborate and support each other, when there is love between them. Positive masculinities of men that support women’s empowerment are potential present but need to be reinforced and guided : Despite challenges of men and women in embracing gender equality and supporting women and girls to participate in public roles, there are opportunities. Women and girls and -fewer men and boys- are in a process of adopting perceptions of positive masculinities as nonviolent, collaborative and supportive. It is recommended to support this process of change, including negative side effects as resistance, through research, programs and interventions that equally include men, women, boys and girls to experience the strength of gender equality as sharing being human. Limited capacity in gender mainstreaming among district planning units remains a stumbling block for effective transformation of negative masculinities and gender inequalities : the Rwanda government has made tremendous efforts to promote gender equality through positive masculinity among other approaches. However, the efforts made are thwarted by limited knowledge and skills in gender mainstreaming among district planning units who strongly need to strengthen their capacity to streamline key gender issues. POLICY BRIEF ON ISSUES HINDERING WOMEN PARTICIPATION IN LOCAL POLITICS IN RWANDA


    Comprendre les perceptions, attitudes, pratiques liés à la masculinité et concevoir des stratégies qui s’attaquent à la violence sexiste, promouvoir l’égalité des sexes en impliquant les hommes. Cette recherche a pour objectif principal de comprendre les perceptions, les normes, les attitudes, les connaissances et pratiques liées à la masculinité en vue de concevoir des stratégies qui s’attaquent à la violence sexiste et promouvoir l’égalité de sexe dans l’Ombella M’Poko en impliquant les hommes. L’étude a été réalisée dans le cadre du Projet : « Services de réhabilitation physique, psychologique et réinsertion économique intégrés aux survivants des violences sexuelles et basées sur le genre et leurs familles liées aux conflits à l’Ombella M’Poko » mis en œuvre par l’Association des Femmes Juristes de Centrafrique(AFJC) et Rwanda Men’s Resource Center (RWAMREC) avec l’appui financier et technique de la Cour Pénale Internationale (CPI)/Fonds au profit des Victimes en République centrafricaine Mandat d’assistance. Le projet a pour but de contribuer à la réparation des préjudices sanitaires, psychologiques et matériels subits par les victimes des conflits ainsi qu’à la résilience des personnes vulnérables y compris femmes et filles victimes de VSBG et aux efforts de consolidation de la paix en République Centrafricaine en utilisant l’approche de masculinité positive. La perception de la masculinité demeure un domaine de recherche à comprendre et analyser les expériences des hommes et des garçons en tant qu’êtres sexués, incluant les notions rigides de la masculinité qui façonnent leurs attitudes et leurs comportements, ainsi que leurs rôles et responsabilités dans la promotion des droits des femmes et filles à travers la justice et l’égalité genre pour tous. Le défi majeur reste à influencer les rôles stéréotypés des hommes/garçons et les expressions patriarcales de la virilité, à soutenir les manifestations d’attitudes et de comportements non violents, équitables et inclusifs en transformant les normes sociales qui sont à l’origine des inégalités entre les sexes. Les résultats de cette étude visent à fournir à RWAMREC et ses partenaires un document de référence sur la masculinité en vue de concevoir des stratégies contextualisées pour impliquer les hommes dans des initiatives visant à mettre fin aux violences sexuelles et celles basées sur le genre(VSBG). Cette recherche constitue aussi un outil de plaidoyer en vue de concevoir des programmes efficaces permettant d’impliquer les hommes et les garçons, leur donner les moyens de promouvoir des relations équitables, bienveillantes et non-violentes et consolider la paix en République Centrafricaine(RCA). Bangui, Février 2022


    A baseline study report This baseline study aimed at collecting data and information that would later help to measure the progress and impact of the RWAMREC Gender and Social inclusion Accountability project in increasing citizen participation in leadership process and setting up their priorities to influence the Imihigo and district planning, including the institutionalization of the gender-budgeting statement (GBS) in Imihigo performance contracts. This baseline study covered Nyaruguru and Gatsibo districts. The current baseline study focused on measuring the level of citizens participation, particularly members of the vulnerable groups (persons with disabilities, the elderly, the youth, and women) in the Imihigo, in district development plan, and budgeting processes with gender lens. The baseline further looked at the factors that hinder the effective participation of community members at the different stages of imihigo processes. February 2022


    During a recent policy dialogue related to gender rights in the workplace, it was unanimously admitted that paternity leave still faces a number of challenges and one concrete way to advance the leave for workers whose spouses have given birth is to dig deep into barriers, gaps and challenges hampering the paternity leave to be effective from all fronts including policy and community levels. In recognition of the potential for fathers to positively contribute to early childcare, Rwamrec and RCSP have commissioned this Rapid assessment to document legislative gaps and other factors, attitudes and behaviors inhibiting male engagement in early childhood care, on one hand and paternity leave, on the other hand. The assessment aims to study legislative gaps, barriers and challenges affecting father’s involvement in the childhood care from a perspective of experts, practitioners and other related grey literature. The ultimate objective was to formulate recommendations for an effective fatherhood in general and increased use of paternity leave in the best interest of children for healthy families in Rwanda. The ultimate ambition would be to helping the Government of Rwanda, Rwamrec and other gender actors to develop programs, strategies and interventions that better address certain potentially harmful social norms related to father involvement. In terms of methodology used so far, the rapid assessment adopted a largely qualitative approach using both primary and secondary data sources. It involved key informant interviews at national level, including with national authorities of gender machinery, gender practitioners, trade union leaders, opinion leaders, gender activists..... In terms of key findings, while recognizing exceptional cases of effective involvement of fathers in early steps of the child, it is obvious that certain cultural commonalities are evident as a result of prevailing gender norms, attitudes and behaviors in Rwanda. It is common in Rwandan culture to see women taking on the bulk of responsibility for parenting, especially in the early years. From conception onwards, mothers will take a lead in almost all aspects of childcare. The part played by fathers, however, is far less visible. The rapid assessment also shows that more often, Rwandan mothers maintain a proximate and hands-on relationship with babies throughout their infancy. Nevertheless, it seems from the findings that fathers are implicated in a wide range of ‘behind the scenes’ work to support the mother, especially when the child reaches the age of walking and talking and are less involved the first steps of the baby. Nevertheless, the lack of engagement by fathers is particularly prominent and is explained by several key factors : A limited policy and legislative environment that seems to deny to fathers the same amount of leave period to father workers as shown in this rapid assessment ; The primacy of a patriarchal culture that dictates the division of labor between mothers and fathers ; Maternal “Gatekeeping” as an additional barrier to the involvement of men in caregiving activities ; A lack of knowledge amongst both men and women about the potential benefits of father engagement ; The reinforcement of existing gender stereotypes through female dominated early childhood service provision ; Key Recommendations : Given the various individual, familial and societal benefits of increased father involvement in early childhood, several recommendations are put forth, some inspired by promising practices from the field. These include : Aggressive awareness-raising at national and local levels through all available and existing forums where community members meet and discuss community issues (Umugoroba w’umuryango, intego y’abaturage,….) ; The promotion of champions and ‘positive deviance’ role models to inspire young men and fathers ; Incentivizing father involvement and male engagement especially through the family performance contracts ; Investing in an evidence base to provide data on positive outcomes for children, families, and communities as a result of increased father involvement ; Evolving national policy including labor laws and policies and monitor their implementation ; POLICY BRIEF : Overcoming the barriers, filling the gaps and addressing challenges to make paternity leave a living reality in Rwanda. Décembre 2022

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